Indonesia: Integrated Climate Action in Cities

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The approach

The GIZ programme Policy Advice for Environment and Climate Change (PAKLIM) developed an approach for Integrated Climate Action (ICA) planning in Indonesian cities (PAKLIM-ICA), which includes both mitigation and adaptation. It was conducted as a pilot in eight Indonesian cities and localities in Java.

Scope and entry points

The entry points for the PAKLIM-ICA approach are urban development processes as well as the need for a climate action plan articulated by the local government. Within this framework, the approach supports elaboration of the plan based on a systematic participatory process.

How it works

The whole process can be divided into four sequential phases: (i) context establishment; (ii) prioritised area assessment and goal setting; (iii) development of Integrated Climate Action (ICA) for a City Climate Strategy; and (iv) monitoring and evaluation.

The context establishment phase covers the activities of establishing a steering committee, completing a GHG emission inventory, and identifying risks and opportunities for GHG emission reduction, as well as the mapping of climate change impacts and identification of risks and opportunities for adaptation. The identification of climate change risks is based on information about local extreme events, projected local climate variables and projected local impacts. Climate impacts, for examples, include tide surges, floods, landslides, vector diseases and crop failures. The climate change risk is defined by the likelihood of occurrences and the effects of these projected impacts on the city.

The second phase covers the identification of prioritised areas for actions and goals setting. The goals, for example, include emission reduction targets as well as targets for enhancing adaptive capacity and resilience. This phase includes an analysis of potential risks of prioritised areas and deducing potential actions for adaptation.

The third phase covers the development of an ICA plan and the implementation of actions. The process includes finding agreement on key sectors to be addressed and related joint strategies for mitigation and adaptation, and the setting of realistic targets for both mitigation and adaptation actions within defined timeframes. The ICA plan is expected to attract private investment and international incentives in addition to central government, local and private funds. It is also expected to be implemented within the context of signed agreements with city governments.

The last phase focuses on monitoring and evaluation of the implementation of actions. This includes assessment of target achievement, and systematically reconsidering the strategy and actions when necessary.

Specifics of application

  • Stakeholders and institutional set-up
    City governments are the main stakeholders for this approach. The steering committee is the main coordinating body, and is comprised of participants appointed by the mayors. The Ministry of Environment is responsible for increasing awareness and the capacity of local governments on climate change issues.
  • Input
    Usually, the approach requires an expert on climate change to support the steering committee. This process depends on the availability of a significant amount of data for the GHG inventory and the climate impact mapping. From establishing the context to the integration of the ICA plan into the city planning, the process may take about 16 months, whereas the implementation of actions and their evaluation will extend beyond this timeframe.
  • Output
    The intermediate outputs within the process are a GHG inventory and climate impact maps, while the final output is an ICA plan including specifications for implementation and monitoring.
  • Capacity required and ease of use

The process requires good local knowledge and commitment by the local bodies, an effective steering function by the lead agency, and pro-active involvement of all relevant sector agencies. The approach is more straightforward and less capacity-intensive than other comparable approaches, but still needs a well-organised process, expert resources and local commitment.

Conclusions for future application

  • Outcome and added value
    The PAKLIM-ICA approach, as implemented in eight cities in Java, has successfully identified integrated mitigation and adaptation options. Implementation of some of the ICA options will require additional funds.


  • Cost-benefit ratio
    The approach is relatively low-cost, and the financial resources for the plan development are mainly for the consultant’s fee, data collection and the coordination process. This implies a high cost-benefit-ratio if the process eventually results in an implementable and agreed ICA plan.
  • Potential for replication
    The approach might well be replicated, and two more cities have already been selected. A support role by the Ministry of Environment would strongly promote the mainstreaming of the approach. The time required for conducting the process is quite long and depends on the availability and accessibility of data. Therefore, the involved local bodies must have endurance. In addition, the approach may face organisational challenges that are different for each city. In many cities, data is lacking due to poor documentation and / or unreliable data. An approach hand-tailored to specific city conditions might be necessary.


Reference persons for further details:

Purnomo Sidi, and Philipp Munzinger,
GIZ Policy Advice for Environment and Climate Change

Website with detailed information on the project: