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Many regions in the Philippines are at risk of slow onset processes, such as sea level rise, land degradation and desertification, changes in rainfall and drought. The IMPACT project undertook a study of perceptions of slow onset climatic risks and migration in the Philippines, and the causality and impact both in the destination and origin areas. By following a people-centered research approach, the study is based on Key Expert Interviews, Participatory Rural Appraisals and Individual and Collective Storytelling Interviews, which have been conducted across the three major island groups of the Philippines (Mindanao, Visayas and Luzon). The collected data have been evaluated regarding internal and international migration patterns, as well as, for each of the considered areas, perceptions of environmental change, adaptation strategies and constraints, and aspects related to gender, wellbeing, and social cohesion in context of migration. The IMPACT study is closed by providing recommendations for adaptation and disaster risks, positive migration effects, and negative migration effects that can feed into policymaking.
The Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration (GCM) is a non-binding agreement comprising comprehensive commitments for governing international migration under the obligations and principles of international law. Commitments included in the compact, address migration induced by disasters, the adverse effects of climate change and environmental degradation. Goals 2, 5, 21 and 23 of the GCM are of particular relevance within this context. However, the GCM lacks a comprehensive monitoring and reporting framework to track and evaluate the implementation process. To support an effective implementation process, this report reviews existing policies and legal instruments on regional and national level governing migration in the context of disasters, climate change and environmental degradation. By identifying and analysing implementation gaps as well as effective practices of governments, this analysis shall serve as a baseline to facilitate and assess future implementations.
The Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration (GCM) includes commitments addressing migration induced by disasters, the adverse effects of climate change and environmental degradation. Goals 2, 5, 21 and 23 of the GCM are of particular relevance within this context. To be effective, adequate incorporation of the commitments in national and regional policies and legislation is needed. The GCM lacks a comprehensive monitoring and reporting framework to track and evaluate the implementation process. Therefore, the Global Compact for Migration Baseline Analysis Report reviews existing policies and legal instruments on regional and national level governing migration in the context of disasters, climate change and environmental degradation. This fact sheet summarizes ten key insights derived from the report.
Slow onset processes and extreme weather events related to global warming are driving human mobility in context of climate change. Due to related extremes and slowly evolving processes such as floods, droughts, and rising sea-level, increasingly more livelihoods are destroyed, homes become inhabitable and economic opportunities are mitigated, resulting in migration, displacement, and planned relocation. To reduce those adverse effects related to climate change, the implementation of timely and diversified financing is needed. Therefore, this fact sheet presents different relevant finance sources and instruments in terms of their linkage to human mobility in the context of climate change, including reflections on gender aspects and recommendations for decision-makers.
The Leaving Place, Restoring Home studies have identified over 400 cases of planned relocation across the globe. What are the characteristics of planned relocation, and the opportunities and challenges associated with it? In what ways can it support durable solutions for people vulnerable to disasters and climate change? What can the Leaving Place, Restoring Home studies add to our understanding of planned relocation?
This compendium comprises an overview and analysis of gender approaches for different pathways of climate-induced mobility, working with six case studies on migration, displacement, and planned relocation. By presenting relevant lessons, best practices, tools, recommendations and resources to practitioners, a knowledge basis is provided for enhancing the gender-sensitive and sustainable management of human mobility in the context of climate change within the Philippines.
Slow onset processes and extreme weather events related to global warming are driving human mobility in context of climate change (HMCCC). Due to related extremes and slowly evolving processes such as floods, droughts, and rising sea-level, increasingly more livelihoods are destroyed, homes become inhabitable and economic opportunities are mitigated, resulting in migration, displacement, and planned relocation. To reduce those adverse effects related to climate change, the implementation of timely and diversified financing is needed. Therefore, with a focus on developing countries, this study presents and reflects on different relevant finance sources and instruments in terms of their linkage to HMCCC, effect on climate risks, implementation timing, and gender aspects. 10 finance instruments and tools that address HMCCC have been selected with a non-exhaustive approach for analysis, coming from a range of international, public, and private sources. Additionally, the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on financing flows and options for HMCCC has been considered in an exclusive chapter. The study closes with recommendations for different target groups, especially national governments, and donor organizations.
The climate-migration nexus has been attracting increasing scholarly attention in the last decades. The various manifestations of climate change including extreme events that are expected to get more frequent and more intense, and slow-onset changes that increasingly affect livelihoods in a context of international climate coordination failure add fuel to the fire. Countries in South-East Asia are among the most vulnerable to climate change, and future climate scenarios predict increases in multiple indicators, including temperatures, annual precipitation, number of consecutive too wet and dry days, among others. Understanding how these changes may shape human mobility is key to effective policy design to protect livelihoods and establish migration as a choice rather than necessity. This report contributes to the discourse on climate change and internal migration linkages in the Philippines by analysing data from the latest census available, building upon a large set of climate change indicators and by identifying policy entry points at different levels.
Planned relocation is used as an adaptation and risk reduction strategy for communities or groups of households exposed to hazards, disasters and climate change. Yet little is known about the diversity in spatial patterns of planned relocation cases. This narrative and visual compilation of nine case studies derived from a global mapping by the Platform on Disaster Displacement (PDD) sheds light on the spatial complexity of planned relocation. It offers preliminary insights for policy and practice on characteristics, approaches to implementation and associated challenges.
Across Asia, disasters and climate change impacts have had, and will continue to have, profound effects on people and the places they call home. Building on a global mapping by the Platform on Disaster Displacement (PDD), this snapshot draws on cases identified in Asia to shine a spotlight on notable characteristics and insights that emerge in this regional context.
Facing the impacts and risks of climate change and disasters, communities and authorities in the Pacific region have initiated planned relocation of people out of harm’s way. Building on a global mapping by the Platform on Disaster Displacement (PDD), this snapshot draws on cases identified in the Pacific region and offers insights on regional specific features of planned relocation.
This publication builds on the landmark 2018 Groundswell report to examine climate-induced migration in the Lake Victoria Basin to inform policy makers and practitioners about the urgency for near- and farsighted planning, policy, and action as an integral part of the development response. This report uses a quantitative and qualitative understanding of plausible future climate migration scenarios and proposes core policy direction and domains for action to better anticipate and prepare for the issue. It also provides strategic policy responses to guide countries in the Lake Victoria Basin to better anticipate and prepare for the expected 16.6 - 38.5 million internal climate migrants in the Victoria Basin countries by 2020.
This report summarizes an online four-day Training of Trainers (ToT) session in June that aimed to build capacity of border officials to address disaster displacement situations. The ToT is the 2nd phase of training which follows the first virtual delivery to border officials across the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States and the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) in June 2020.
The Eastern Caribbean region is currently faced with a dilemma: On the one hand, the region is struggling with the management of the COVID-19 pandemic which has necessitated extended State of Emergency periods with established curfews and other measures to encourage people to stay home, practice social distancing and move as little as possible. Also, borders are largely closed, hence, the Free Movement of People Regime in the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) region is restricted due to COVID-19. These situations imply that people cannot move within the region and internal movements are also restricted. On the other hand, the OECS region is expecting an above-average active hurricane season which, based on past experience, might require people to move within their countries or across borders as a result of hurricanes or other climate-related events. These two different crises demand contrasting kinds of action: remaining versus moving.
This factsheet provides an overview of scenario planning as an approach to deal with migration, displacement and planned relocation in the context of climate change. Scenario planning is a method that involves a wide range of stakeholders and serves as a tool for developing a range of future scenarios based on multiple factors and influences. The Global Programme Human Mobility in the Context of Climate Change implemented by the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH has successfully applied scenario planning methods with its partners in the Caribbean, Pacific and the Philippines. In this context, valuable insights and important options for action could be identified.
This report provides an overview of how human mobility in the context of climate change (HMCCC) fits into the policy landscape of nine island and archipelagic countries: Anguilla, Antigua & Barbuda, Dominica, and St. Lucia in the Eastern Caribbean; Fiji, Kiribati, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu in the South Pacific; and the Philippines in the Western Pacific. All of these nations are heavily affected by climate impacts like sea level rise, ocean acidification, tropical cyclones and hydrological extremes.
This report provides an overview of how human mobility in the context of climate change (HMCCC) fits into the policy landscape of nine island and archipelagic countries: Anguilla, Antigua & Barbuda, Dominica, and St. Lucia in the Eastern Caribbean; Fiji, Kiribati, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu in the South Pacific; and the Philippines in the Western Pacific. All of these nations are heavily affected by climate impacts like sea level rise, ocean acidification, tropical cyclones and hydrological extremes.
This document provides an overview of how Fiji, a Pacific Island country affected by climate change, has responded nationally to international and regional frameworks and guidelines on adaptation and human mobility in the context of climate change. It covers, inter alia, how Fiji developed its Planned Relocation Guidelines – A framework to undertake climate change related relocation, the first to ever be developed in the Pacific Islands.
This factsheet provides an introduction to the topic of HMCCC and gives an overview of relevant international policy frameworks. It looks at the partner regions and activities of the Global Programme on Human Mobility in the Context of Climate Change (GP HMCCC), implemented by GIZ on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ).