Climate Risk Management (CRM) includes both disaster risk reduction and adaptation. Whereas disaster risk reduction is the management of the the current risks, adaptation is the process of adjustment to actual or expected climate and its effects, in order to moderate harm or exploit beneficial opportunities. This module provides guidance on moving from Climate Risk Assessment (CRA) and evaluation to informing and supporting decision making towards climate risk management (including adaptation) which reduces hazards, exposure and vulnerability, enhances adaptive capacity and strengthens resilience to climate risks.
This module takes up the outcomes of the risk analysis with the identified key risks and their underlying risk drivers (hazard, vulnerability, exposure) and the results from the risk evaluation stating for which of the key risks the urgency to act is high.
In the first step, you will revisit underlying objectives, targets and values with the stakeholders. Referring back to the scoping phase of the CRA, you should look again at its purpose and objectives. Identify any institutional development goals at risk from climate change and understand the development goals and aspirations of stakeholders. The responses to these questions are important to understand which adaptation options could be implemented, who should be involved in their design and implementation, and how coordination between stakeholders could be organised.
In the second step, you will review existing adaptation options, identify entry points and develop lists of potential adaptation options. The process is iterative and involves refining the list of potential options based on a set of guiding questions. Reviewing past and current adaptation strategies will help to identify entry points and inspiration for adaptation activities. Impact chains can be helpful in finding entry points to introduce adaptation options, as well as engaging with local and sectoral experts, and other sources that you may be aware of.
In the third step you will evaluate the potential adaptation options and packages. The module emphasises the importance of establishing evaluation criteria for existing and potential adaptation measures. In addition to cost-benefit analysis, other criteria such as social acceptance, co-benefits, trade-offs, and adaptation limits and barriers should be considered. In evaluating potential adaptation options, it is important to consider potential co-benefits and trade-offs. This means identifying any positive or negative impacts that an adaptation option might have beyond its primary intended purpose. Trade-offs are particularly important to identify for vulnerable and marginalised groups. Additionally, it is important to consider soft and hard limits to adaptation, or the boundaries beyond which adaptation becomes impossible or ineffective. We suggest following an iterative process for identifying adaptation options and packages as shown in the Figure below.
Iterative process of identifying entry points for adaptation options and packages
In the last step you will gather feedback on the potential adaptation options from stakeholders. To ensure an inclusivity, it is important to consider the perspectives of vulnerable and marginalised groups who are often excluded from decision-making processes.