Photo © GIZ / Michael Netzhammer
With the adoption of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Paris Agreement in 2015, adaptation is now firmly on the international agenda. In the lead up to the 21st Conference of the Parties (COP21) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in Paris in 2015, Parties to the Convention agreed to submit intended nationally determined contributions (INDCs). In doing so, they outlined their commitments to reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and had the option to also include adaptation. Unless countries chose to amend their INDCs before ratifying the Paris Agreement, these documents became their first nationally determined contributions (NDCs). According to Article 7.9 of the Paris Agreement all Parties shall, as appropriate, engage in the formulation and implementation of national adaptation planning processes, such as the national adaptation plan (NAP) process. This publication is primarily for policymakers, decision-makers and practitioners who are working on climate change adaptation at a national level (e.g. ministries of environment, climate change focal points,and adaptation and sectoral experts).