The present document has been prepared by the Second Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group on Biodiversity and Climate Change. The document addresses a range of topics as reflected in the terms of reference of the Expert Group. Section 1 of the document examines the observed and projected impacts of climate change on biodiversity. The section further considers issues of uncertainty and presents suggestions for additional research needed to qualify complex processes and interactions and increase the degree of certainty with regards to both impacts and vulnerability.
Section 2 examines the links between biodiversity and climate change adaptation including the contribution of biodiversity to effective adaptation and the potential risks and benefits of adaptation activities for biodiversity. The section elaborates on the concept and practice of ecosystem-based adaptation and presents suggestions on how broader adaptation activities to address the adverse effects of climate change can be designed and implemented in order to strengthen the adaptive capacity of biodiversity, maximize co-benefits across sectors and avoid unintended negative consequences on ecosystem services.
Section 3 examines the links between biodiversity and climate change mitigation with a particular focus on land use management activities and reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. The section explores the potential contribution of biodiversity conservation and sustainable use to mitigation efforts and suggests ways in which co-benefits can be enhanced. Finally, the section examines the potential positive and negative impacts of mitigation activities on biodiversity (e.g. renewable energy technologies) while highlighting those mitigation approaches, such as geo-engineering, for which additional research is required.
Finally, section 4 provides information on techniques for valuing biodiversity highlighting that applying these techniques can quantify costs and benefits, opportunities and challenges and thus can improve decision making with regards to climate change related activities. The section further presents options on incentive measures that could be adopted so as to further elaborate the links between biodiversity and climate change related activities.
Throughout the document, case-studies are used to illustrate good-practice examples and lessons learned. Furthermore, wherever possible, tools and methodologies are elaborated in order to provide concrete and practical scientific and technical advice.
CBD (2009): CBD Technical Series No.41: Connecting Biodiversity and Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation — Report of the Second Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group on Biodiversity and Climate Change.