Synergies between adaptation, biodiversity, and mitigation: How Ecosystem-based Adaptation can build bridges between Nationally Determined Contributions and the new Global Biodiversity Framework

The latest IPCC report on impacts, adaptation and vulnerability stated that “ Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) can deliver climate change adaptation opportunities for people, while also providing multiple additional benefits, including for biodiversity”. This discussion paper builds upon a recently published series of thematic papers  on synergies between biodiversity and climate policy frameworks by GIZ and IISD, looking more  in depth at potential synergies between Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC) and the upcoming new Global Biodiversity  Framework (GBF). 

After some general  considerations on the role of EbA in building bridges that bring multiple benefits for adaptation, mitigation, biodiversity, society and human well-being, the authors apply this perspective to three cases (Pakistan, Jordan and Costa Rica), exploring synergies of ecosystem-based approaches in the water, agriculture and urban sectors. The paper also addresses maladaptation risks and the need to move away from silo mentalities and towards more system thinking, always including a social justice perspective. The discussion paper closes with some recommendations by the authors’ on how to move forward