Synergies between adaptation, biodiversity, and mitigation: How Ecosystem-based Adaptation can build bridges between Nationally Determined Contributions and the new Global Biodiversity Framework

At the 15th Conference of the Parties (COP15) of the UN Convention on Biological Diversity held in Montreal in December 2022, the new Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF) has been adopted.

Building synergies between climate and biodiversity policies can increase the possibility of international support for implementing and upscaling ecosystem-based approaches and policies. After some general considerations on the role of EbA in building bridges that bring multiple benefits for adaptation, mitigation, biodiversity, society and human well-being, the authors of the study apply this perspective to three cases (Pakistan, Jordan and Costa Rica), exploring synergies of ecosystem-based approaches in the water, agriculture and urban sectors. The paper also addresses maladaptation risks and the need to move away from silo mentalities and towards more system thinking, always including a social justice perspective. The discussion paper closes with some recommendations by the authors’ on how to move forward.