BALIK PROBINSYA: A phenomenological case study of pandemic-related reverse migration from Metro Manila to Leyte province, Philippines

When Metro Manila was placed on lockdown in face of the Covid-19 pandemic, a myriad of issues hurtled to the front of national focus, among them were migrant workers stranded in the country’s capital. In response, the Philippine government formulated the Balik Probinsya program to move individuals back to the provinces and decongest densely populated areas such as Metro Manila. 

The Balik Probinsya program is a longterm program of the government intended for Metro Manila residents who want to return to their provinces “for good.” This paper is interested in determining the effects of this reverse migration on the rural areas and the loss of remittances from these returning migrants on the community of origin, especially any adaptation to climate change activities.

Internal Migration In The Philippines: Adaptation To Climate Change (IMPACT)

Many regions in the Philippines are at risk of slow onset processes, such as sea level rise, land degradation and desertification, changes in rainfall and drought. The IMPACT project undertook a study of perceptions of slow onset climatic risks and migration in the Philippines, and the causality and impact both in the destination and origin areas. By following a people-centered research approach, the study is based on Key Expert Interviews, Participatory Rural Appraisals and Individual and Collective Storytelling Interviews, which have been conducted across the three major island groups of the Philippines (Mindanao, Visayas and Luzon). The collected data have been evaluated regarding internal and international migration patterns, as well as, for each of the considered areas, perceptions of environmental change, adaptation strategies and constraints, and aspects related to gender, wellbeing, and social cohesion in context of migration. The IMPACT study is closed by providing recommendations for adaptation and disaster risks, positive migration effects, and negative migration effects that can feed into policymaking.

Implementing the Commitments Related to Addressing Human Mobility in the Context of Disasters, Climate Change and Environmental Degradation – A Baseline Analysis Report Under the Global Compact Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration

The Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration (GCM) is a non-binding agreement comprising comprehensive commitments for governing international migration under the obligations and principles of international law. Commitments included in the compact, address migration induced by disasters, the adverse effects of climate change and environmental degradation. Goals 2, 5, 21 and 23 of the GCM are of particular relevance within this context. However, the GCM lacks a comprehensive monitoring and reporting framework to track and evaluate the implementation process. To support an effective implementation process, this report reviews existing policies and legal instruments on regional and national level governing migration in the context of disasters, climate change and environmental degradation. By identifying and analysing implementation gaps as well as effective practices of governments, this analysis shall serve as a baseline to facilitate and assess future implementations.

Human Mobility in the Context of Disasters, Climate Change and Environmental Degradation – Ten Insights from the GCM Baseline Mapping Report

The Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration (GCM) includes commitments addressing migration induced by disasters, the adverse effects of climate change and environmental degradation. Goals 2, 5, 21 and 23 of the GCM are of particular relevance within this context. To be effective, adequate incorporation of the commitments in national and regional policies and legislation is needed. The GCM lacks a comprehensive monitoring and reporting framework to track and evaluate the implementation process. Therefore, the Global Compact for Migration Baseline Analysis Report reviews existing policies and legal instruments on regional and national level governing migration in the context of disasters, climate change and environmental degradation. This fact sheet summarizes ten key insights derived from the report.

The landscape of financing options to address human mobility in the context of climate change – Fact sheet

Slow onset processes and extreme weather events related to global warming are driving human mobility in context of climate change. Due to related extremes and slowly evolving processes such as floods, droughts, and rising sea-level, increasingly more livelihoods are destroyed, homes become inhabitable and economic opportunities are mitigated, resulting in migration, displacement, and planned relocation. To reduce those adverse effects related to climate change, the implementation of timely and diversified financing is needed. Therefore, this fact sheet presents different relevant finance sources and instruments in terms of their linkage to human mobility in the context of climate change, including reflections on gender aspects and recommendations for decision-makers.

Leaving Place, Restoring Home – Enhancing the Evidence Base on Planned Relocation Cases in the Context of Hazards, Disasters, and Climate Change

The Leaving Place, Restoring Home studies have identified over 400 cases of planned relocation across the globe. What are the characteristics of planned relocation, and the opportunities and challenges associated with it? In what ways can it support durable solutions for people vulnerable to disasters and climate change? What can the Leaving Place, Restoring Home studies add to our understanding of planned relocation?

Human Mobility, Climate Change and Gender in the Philippines

This compendium comprises an overview and analysis of gender approaches for different pathways of climate-induced mobility, working with six case studies on migration, displacement, and planned relocation. By presenting relevant lessons, best practices, tools, recommendations and resources to practitioners, a knowledge basis is provided for enhancing the gender-sensitive and sustainable management of human mobility in the context of climate change within the Philippines.