Many regions in the Philippines are at risk of slow onset processes, such as sea level rise, land degradation and desertification, changes in rainfall and drought. The IMPACT project undertook a study of perceptions of slow onset climatic risks and migration in the Philippines, and the causality and impact both in the destination and origin areas. By following a people-centered research approach, the study is based on Key Expert Interviews, Participatory Rural Appraisals and Individual and Collective Storytelling Interviews, which have been conducted across the three major island groups of the Philippines (Mindanao, Visayas and Luzon). The collected data have been evaluated regarding internal and international migration patterns, as well as, for each of the considered areas, perceptions of environmental change, adaptation strategies and constraints, and aspects related to gender, wellbeing, and social cohesion in context of migration. The IMPACT study is closed by providing recommendations for adaptation and disaster risks, positive migration effects, and negative migration effects that can feed into policymaking.
This factsheet summarizes the study by Schraven et al. about the negative effects of climate change and their relation to human mobility in designated countries located in East, West and Southern Africa losing with a proposal of options for policy responses.
Implementing the Commitments Related to Addressing Human Mobility in the Context of Disasters, Climate Change and Environmental Degradation – A Baseline Analysis Report Under the Global Compact Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration
The Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration (GCM) is a non-binding agreement comprising comprehensive commitments for governing international migration under the obligations and principles of international law. To support an effective implementation process, this report reviews existing policies and legal instruments on regional and national level governing migration in the context of disasters, climate change and environmental degradation.
Human Mobility in the Context of Disasters, Climate Change and Environmental Degradation – Ten Insights from the GCM Baseline Mapping Report
The Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration (GCM) includes commitments addressing migration induced by disasters, the adverse effects of climate change and environmental degradation. Goals 2, 5, 21 and 23 of the GCM are of particular relevance within this context. To be effective, adequate incorporation of the commitments in national and regional policies and legislation is needed. The GCM lacks a comprehensive monitoring and reporting framework to track and evaluate the implementation process. Therefore, the Global Compact for Migration Baseline Analysis Report reviews existing policies and legal instruments on regional and national level governing migration in the context of disasters, climate change and environmental degradation. This fact sheet summarizes ten key insights derived from the report.
The landscape of financing options to address human mobility in the context of climate change – Fact sheet
Slow onset processes and extreme weather events related to global warming are driving human mobility in context of climate change. Due to related extremes and slowly evolving processes such as floods, droughts, and rising sea-level, increasingly more livelihoods are destroyed, homes become inhabitable and economic opportunities are mitigated, resulting in migration, displacement, and planned relocation. To reduce those adverse effects related to climate change, the implementation of timely and diversified financing is needed. Therefore, this fact sheet presents different relevant finance sources and instruments in terms of their linkage to human mobility in the context of climate change, including reflections on gender aspects and recommendations for decision-makers.
Leaving Place, Restoring Home – Enhancing the Evidence Base on Planned Relocation Cases in the Context of Hazards, Disasters, and Climate Change
The Leaving Place, Restoring Home studies have identified over 400 cases of planned relocation across the globe. What are the characteristics of planned relocation, and the opportunities and challenges associated with it? In what ways can it support durable solutions for people vulnerable to disasters and climate change? What can the Leaving Place, Restoring Home studies add to our understanding of planned relocation?
This compendium comprises an overview and analysis of gender approaches for different pathways of climate-induced mobility, working with six case studies on migration, displacement, and planned relocation. By presenting relevant lessons, best practices, tools, recommendations and resources to practitioners, a knowledge basis is provided for enhancing the gender-sensitive and sustainable management of human mobility in the context of climate change within the Philippines.
Slow onset processes and extreme weather events related to global warming are driving human mobility in context of climate change (HMCCC). Due to related extremes and slowly evolving processes such as floods, droughts, and rising sea-level, increasingly more livelihoods are destroyed, homes become inhabitable and economic opportunities are mitigated, resulting in migration, displacement, and planned relocation. To reduce those adverse effects related to climate change, the implementation of timely and diversified financing is needed. Therefore, with a focus on developing countries, this study presents and reflects on different relevant finance sources and instruments in terms of their linkage to HMCCC, effect on climate risks, implementation timing, and gender aspects. 10 finance instruments and tools that address HMCCC have been selected with a non-exhaustive approach for analysis, coming from a range of international, public, and private sources. Additionally, the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on financing flows and options for HMCCC has been considered in an exclusive chapter. The study closes with recommendations for different target groups, especially national governments, and donor organizations.
The climate-migration nexus has been attracting increasing scholarly attention in the last decades. The various manifestations of climate change including extreme events that are expected to get more frequent and more intense, and slow-onset changes that increasingly affect livelihoods in a context of international climate coordination failure add fuel to the fire. Countries in South-East Asia are among the most vulnerable to climate change, and future climate scenarios predict increases in multiple indicators, including temperatures, annual precipitation, number of consecutive too wet and dry days, among others. Understanding how these changes may shape human mobility is key to effective policy design to protect livelihoods and establish migration as a choice rather than necessity. This report contributes to the discourse on climate change and internal migration linkages in the Philippines by analysing data from the latest census available, building upon a large set of climate change indicators and by identifying policy entry points at different levels.
Unpacking Spatial Complexity: Case Studies of Planned Relocation with Multiple Origin and Destination Sites
Planned relocation is used as an adaptation and risk reduction strategy for communities or groups of households exposed to hazards, disasters and climate change. Yet little is known about the diversity in spatial patterns of planned relocation cases. This narrative and visual compilation of nine case studies derived from a global mapping by the Platform on Disaster Displacement (PDD) sheds light on the spatial complexity of planned relocation. It offers preliminary insights for policy and practice on characteristics, approaches to implementation and associated challenges.