Human Mobility, Climate Change and Gender in the Philippines

This compendium comprises an overview and analysis of gender approaches for different pathways of climate-induced mobility, working with six case studies on migration, displacement, and planned relocation. By presenting relevant lessons, best practices, tools, recommendations and resources to practitioners, a knowledge basis is provided for enhancing the gender-sensitive and sustainable management of human mobility in the context of climate change within the Philippines.

The landscape of financing options to address human mobility in the context of climate change

Slow onset processes and extreme weather events related to global warming are driving human mobility in context of climate change (HMCCC). Due to related extremes and slowly evolving processes such as floods, droughts, and rising sea-level, increasingly more livelihoods are destroyed, homes become inhabitable and economic opportunities are mitigated, resulting in migration, displacement, and planned relocation. To reduce those adverse effects related to climate change, the implementation of timely and diversified financing is needed. Therefore, with a focus on developing countries, this study presents and reflects on different relevant finance sources and instruments in terms of their linkage to HMCCC, effect on climate risks, implementation timing, and gender aspects. 10 finance instruments and tools that address HMCCC have been selected with a non-exhaustive approach for analysis, coming from a range of international, public, and private sources. Additionally, the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on financing flows and options for HMCCC has been considered in an exclusive chapter. The study closes with recommendations for different target groups, especially national governments, and donor organizations.

Impact of Climate Variability on Internal Migration in the Philippines during 2005 – 2010

The climate-migration nexus has been attracting increasing scholarly attention in the last decades. The various manifestations of climate change including extreme events that are expected to get more frequent and more intense, and slow-onset changes that increasingly affect livelihoods in a context of international climate coordination failure add fuel to the fire. Countries in South-East Asia are among the most vulnerable to climate change, and future climate scenarios predict increases in multiple indicators, including temperatures, annual precipitation, number of consecutive too wet and dry days, among others. Understanding how these changes may shape human mobility is key to effective policy design to protect livelihoods and establish migration as a choice rather than necessity. This report contributes to the discourse on climate change and internal migration linkages in the Philippines by analysing data from the latest census available, building upon a large set of climate change indicators and by identifying policy entry points at different levels.

Unpacking Spatial Complexity: Case Studies of Planned Relocation with Multiple Origin and Destination Sites

Planned relocation is used as an adaptation and risk reduction strategy for communities or groups of households exposed to hazards, disasters and climate change. Yet little is known about the diversity in spatial patterns of planned relocation cases. This narrative and visual compilation of nine case studies derived from a global mapping by the Platform on Disaster Displacement (PDD) sheds light on the spatial complexity of planned relocation. It offers preliminary insights for policy and practice on characteristics, approaches to implementation and associated challenges.

Planned Relocation in Asia: A Regional Snapshot

Across Asia, disasters and climate change impacts have had, and will continue to have, profound effects on people and the places they call home. Building on a global mapping by the Platform on Disaster Displacement (PDD), this snapshot draws on cases identified
in Asia to shine a spotlight on notable characteristics and insights that emerge in this regional context.

Planned Relocation in the Pacific: A Regional Snapshot

Facing the impacts and risks of climate change and disasters, communities and authorities in the Pacific region have initiated planned relocation of people out of harm’s way. Building on a global mapping by the Platform on Disaster Displacement (PDD), this snapshot draws on cases identified in the Pacific region and offers insights on regional specific features of planned relocation.

Groundswell Africa : Internal Climate Migration in the Lake Victoria Basin Countries

This publication builds on the landmark 2018 Groundswell report to examine climate-induced migration in the Lake Victoria Basin to inform policy makers and practitioners about the urgency for near- and farsighted planning, policy, and action as an integral part of the development response. This report uses a quantitative and qualitative understanding of plausible future climate migration scenarios and proposes core policy direction and domains for action to better anticipate and prepare for the issue. It also provides strategic policy responses to guide countries in the Lake Victoria Basin to better anticipate and prepare for the expected 16.6 – 38.5 million internal climate migrants in the Victoria Basin countries by 2020.

Human Mobility in the Context of Climate Change – Implications of the COVID-19 Pandemic in the Eastern Caribbean

The Eastern Caribbean region is currently faced with a dilemma: On the one hand, the region is struggling with the management of the COVID-19 pandemic which has necessitated extended State of Emergency periods with established curfews and other measures to encourage people to stay home, practice social distancing and move as little as possible. Also, borders are largely closed, hence, the Free Movement of People Regime in the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) region is restricted due to COVID-19. These situations imply that people cannot move within the region and internal movements are also restricted. On the other hand, the OECS region is expecting an above-average active hurricane season which, based on past experience, might require people to move within their countries or across borders as a result of hurricanes or other climate-related events. These two different crises demand contrasting kinds of action: remaining versus moving.