This policy brief gives an overview of pastoral systems in Africa's drylands in the face of a changing climate – and serves as a short version of a technical background paper. It highlights the remarkable ability of pastoralists to adapt to the impacts of climate change, gives valuable insights and offers lessons e.g. for smallholder farming in drylands. The publication explores key factors enabling and hampering the resilience of pastoral systems. It demonstrates the link between pastoralists’ climate resilience and agroecological principles of good governance and diversification.